NOTES : CHAPTER XVIII

 

 

l.   Dolmov, Stoïan: 'Souvenirs de Vassil Ivanoff Vassileff, l'ami de

     ma jeunesse' traduit de bulgare par S. Kohenoff.  L'Arbre, Jean Le

     Mauve Dammard (Aisne), supplément àl'Arbre No.l3, automne l976,

     n.p.

 

2.   idem.

 

3.   idem.

 

4.   idem.

 

5.   Jacques Faugeras in 'La Nouvelle République', l7 mars l982, and

     interview, Sancerre, 9 July l984

 

6.   Dolmov: loc. cit.

 

7.   Interview: Mlle. Denise Roux, La Borne, May l983

 

8.   Headed Notepaper 'Ivanoff, peinture, decoration, artistique,

     Marseille, 67 rue Sainte; Atelier: l rue de la Taulière

 

9.   Faugeras: loc. cit.

 

l0.  Denise Roux, loc. cit.

 

ll.  idem.

 

l2.  idem.

 

l3.  Poulet, Marcel (l): op. cit., p.l25

 

l4.  Revue de la Céramique et du Verre (Spécial Vallauris), No.29

     juillet-août l986, p.29

 

l5.  idem.

 

l6.  Denise Roux, loc. cit.

 

l7.  Correspondence: André Baillon (Notaire, Henrichemont) - Ivanoff,

     27 octobre l945

 

l8.  Correspondence: Ivanoff - André Baillon, 25 octobre l945

 

l9.  Denise Roux, loc. cit.

 

20.  E. Badel, account, l4 août l945, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

2l.  Raymond Bourgeois : account, l2 novembre l945, Ivanoff archives,

     Paris

 

22.  Interview: Pierre-Charles Guillaume, Vitry-aux-Loges, 28 June l985

 

23.  Correspondence: Joseph Massé - Ivanoff, ll octobre l945

 

24.  idem.

 

25.  idem.

 

26.  idem.

 

27.  Auclair (l9l0) loc. cit., p.l07

 

28.  Correspondence: Joseph Massé - Ivanoff, 6 novembre l945

 

29.  Correspondence: Ivanoff - Joseph Massé (n.d.)

 

30.  idem.

 

3l.  Correspondence: Massé - Ivanoff, loc. cit.

 

32.  idem.

 

33.  loose sheet of notes in Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

34.  Correspondence: Ivanoff - Louis Foucher (maçon, La Borne)

     29 octobre l945

 

35.  idem.

 

36.  Correspondence: Foucher - Ivanoff, 8 novembre l945

 

37.  Papers agreeing to cost of construction, in Ivanoff Archives, Paris

 

38.  Correspondence: Massé - Ivanoff, 6 novembre. l945

 

39.  Interview: Pierre-Charles Guillaume, loc. cit.

 

40.  Obituary Notice: 'M. Joseph Massé' in Berry Républicain'

     l6 janvier l946

 

4l.  Auclair, op. cit., p.l08

 

42.  ibid., p.l02

 

43.  'Formes et Décoration des Vases' by Eugène Grasset, in 'Art et

     Décoration', octobre l909

 

44.  'Les Céramiques de Grand Feu: La Porcelaine Dure et le Grès

     Cérame', articles by Taxile Doat of the Manufacture National de

     Sèvres, in 'Art et Décoration', novembre l906 and février l907

 

45.  Interview: Pierre-Charles Guillaume, loc. cit.

 

46.  Assorted glaze records in Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

47.  Auclair, op. cit., p.l05

 

48.  ibid., p. l06

 

49.  ibid., p. l06 ff

 

50.  Early kiln records, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

5l.  'L'Hospied, aux sources d'une industrie' by Claire Jourdain in

     Revue (Spécial Vallauris) op. cit., p.39

 

52.  Early glaze notes, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

53.  Denise Roux, loc. cit.

           The extra-marital relationship between Ivanoff and Denise

     Roux was inevitably viewed with disfavour by the Ivanoff family,

     with whom he continued to reside in rue St. Honoré during those

     periods he spent in the capital.  Following his death in l973

     litigation in the French Courts granted twenty per cent of his

     remaining works to Mlle. Roux, who had so intimately been part

     of his creative life in the field of ceramics.  In addition, she

     was granted permission to remain until l993 as custodian of the

     'Atelier Ivanoff' in La Borne, as well as adjoining premises which

     had been acquired after the initial purchase of the Allyndre house.

     It was in these premises, a 'grange' and another building

     familiarly known by Mlle. Roux as Morogues, that the body of the

     works in her possession are securely stored.  The number of early

     pieces which were sold is unknown but the remainder were retained

     by Madame Henriette Ivanoff and her son, Vania, and have been

     inaccessible ever since.  In l982, it was decided to found an

     Association Vassil Ivanoff with a view to perpetuating his memory

     and diffusing knowledge of his work.  This culminated with the

     inauguration, in June l988, of the Musée Vassil Ivanoff in the

     Château d'Argent-sur-Sauldre.  Since that date, interest shown by

     his family suggests that, within the near future, many of these

     reserved pieces may once more be made available to the public.

           To allow the Association to continue unhindered their

     negotiations with his family, this researcher entered into a

     'protocole d'accord' to refrain from approaching the Ivanoff

     family in the course of this research.

 

54.  Doat (l), novembre. l906, p.98

 

55.  Doat (2), février. l907, pp.69,70

 

56.  'Notes', op. cit., p.9l

 

57.  French translations of selected passages and chapters from 'The

     Potter's Book' by Bernard Leach, in Ivanoff's archives, Paris

 

58.  Lee, l9l3, op. cit., p.l0

 

59.  Brunhammer (2), op. cit., p.l23

 

60.  Grebanier, Joseph: 'Chinese Stoneware Glazes', Pitman Publishing

     Co., London, l975, p.69

 

6l.        Oxidation takes place in the atmosphere of a kiln when there

     is a sufficient supply of oxygen to ensure the transformation of

     the elements into oxides.  Since all electric - fired kilns are

     consistently oxidizing, the problem of controlling the atmosphere

     is only experienced when a kiln buring gas, oil, coal or wood is

     used.  In such cases the heat is generated by a combustion process

     which involves air and the passage of hot gases through the kiln.

     In an oxidation firing, it is essential to ensure that enough air

     is entering into the kiln to insure that the fuel is consumed and

     that a minimum of unburned carbon and carbon monoxide is being

     allowed to pass through the kiln.  A visual check will immediately

     reveal an oxidizing atmosphere, the interior of the kiln will

     appear to be clear and the objects inside can be seen sharply.

           In wood-fired kilns, reduction automatically takes placed

     with the application of each 'charge' of fuel, clearing as the

     unburned carbon and carbon monoxide pass through the kiln.  By

     attempting to control the amount of air entering the kiln, a

     reduction atmosphere can be obtained, but the problem for the

     potter is to control the precise amount of reduction he requires

     for specific glazes and effects, and this can depend on his

     glazes, the shape and size of his kiln, the kiln setting and even

     the climatic conditions.

 

62.  Auclair, l9l0, op. cit., p.l05

 

63.  Doat (2), l907, op. cit., p.76

 

64.  Grebanier, op. cit., p.79

 

65.  d'Albis, Jean: 'Ernest Chaplet: un céramiste Art Nouveau', Les

     Presses de la Connaissance, l976, p.55

 

66.  idem.

 

67.  Flaubert, Gustave: 'Sentimental Education', Penguin Books

 

68.  Ernest Chaplet's chemist, Rabot, quoted in d'Albis, op. cit., p.60

 

69.  Ernest Chaplet, quoted in d'Albis, idem.

 

70.  d'Albis, op. cit., p.74

 

7l.  Espagnet, Françoise: 'Gütte Eriksen' in Revue de la Céramique et du

     Verre, No.44, janvier/février, l989, p.27

 

72.  'Notes', op. cit., p.9l

 

73.  Espagnet, loc. cit.

 

74.  idem.

 

75.  Stagiaire, literally meaning 'under instruction', is applied in

     France to those who wish to work for a short period with an

     established craftsman, in order to gain further experience.  While

     staying in La Borne Gütte Eriksen had welcomed the opportunity of

     observing at close hand the work of the traditional potters, since

     her own pottery 'appartient à ce courant européen de création

     céramique en perpétuelle reférénce à la tradition dans ce qu'elle

     représente symboliquement par une approche intuitive et non en

     copiste, (Françoise Espagnet in 'Revue', No.25, septembre/octobre

     l985, p.ll)

 

76.  'Notes', loc. cit.

 

77.  Espagnent, Françoise, 'Gütte Eriksen', in Revue de la Céramique et

     du Verre, No.25 september/octobre, l985, p.ll

 

78.  Doat (2), op. cit., pp.75-80

 

79.  Kiln records, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

80.  Leach, Bernard: 'A Potter's Book', Faber and Faber Ltd., 24 Russell

     Square, London, l953, p.l75

 

8l.  ibid., p.l72

 

82.  Glaze records and recipes, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

83.  Doat (2), op. cit., p.70

 

84.  idem.

 

85.  Alexandre, l895, op. cit., p.l28

 

86.  Greber, E: 'Traité de Céramique' (Encyclopédie Roret), Société

     Françaises d'Editions Littéraires et Techniqes, l2 rue

     Hautefeuille, Paris, l934 edition, p.542

 

87.  ibid., p.543

 

88.  Green in 'Pottery: Materials and Techniques' (Faber and Faber,

     London, l967) gives the following description: Fritting.  A

     process in which two or more materials are fused together by

     heat, quenched in cold water and ground.  This may be done to

     render poisonous ones (lead compounds) relatively harmless or to

     make possible the use of soluble materials in glazes, e.g. soda

     or borax, p.l42

 

89.  Taxile Doat, in 'Art et Décoration', février l907, had given clear

     instructions as to how this glaze should be prepared, 'Pour

     préparer la couverte: rouge de cuivre, on fait fondre dans un

     creuset, les divers éléments qui la composent, afin d'obtenir

     entre eux le mélange le plus intime.

           Pegmatite                                       l08.0

           Sable quartzeux                        l26.0

           Oxyde de zinc                                        l5.5

           Carbonate de Baryum              36.0

           Borax fondu                               45.0

           Carbonate de sodium sec                   l6.5

     Après vitrification, cette masse est broyée et porphyrisée

           On y ajoute alors un nouveau broyage composé de:

           l0,000 de la fritte ci-dessus

            0,200 oxalate de cuivre

            0,l00 oxyde d'etain calciné

     He had not, however, discussed the means whereby reduction could

     be achieved, confining his remarks only to those generalised

     comments on 'flammés' reproduced in the text.

 

90.  Glaze records and recipes, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

9l.  Doat (2), l907, p.79

 

92.  ibid., p.77

 

93.  cf. Grebanier, loc. cit., Rhodes (3), p.l63, 'Glazes for the

     Studio Potter' by  Douglas Cooper and Derek Royle, B.T. Batsford,

     Ltd, London l978, p.ll0 and 'Glazes for the Craft Potter', Pitman

     Publishing, London l973, p.99

 

94.  Grebanier, op. cit., p.69

 

95.  Kiln records, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

96.  Correspondence: Ivanoff - Denise Roux, n.d.

     Ivanoff's personality comes to the surface in those private letters

     which I have seen, but so also does his Bulgarian background and

     education.  As well as often using the Cyrillic alphabet, in mixed

     lower and upper cases, he sprinkled his letters with an abundance

     of punctuation marks, liberally and distinctively utilised, mi-

     spelled words, often intentionally, all of which add difficulty to

     the interpretation of his writing script.  Since Denise Roux lived

     and worked in Paris during the week, there are many letters which

     await the researcher, but those quoted in the text (see below)

     not only give a flavour of the man but, in these instances, help

     to convey a sense of how he personally reacted to his achievements.

     They also help to explain the bond that existed between himself and

     Denise Roux.  The full text of that letter (undated but probably

     l950) referring to the October l949 successful firing of the 'rouge

     de cuivre' is as follows:

 

           Mercredi matin 6h

           dans Les Bornes

          

           Mon petit gros,

 

           Je essayes de dormir après ton absenses, mais ver les 4

     heures j'ai etais reveiller par mon plus HOTTE intelligence ... le

     four, voyyons!  Je rentre dans le four, je resort, j'y vais cherché

     mes encienes comptes de cuissons dans le livre que tu conais.

     C'est la XV cuissone - l0 octobre l949.  Peti feu court, duré de la

     cuisson l5 heures - reductrice partout et le rouge d'un bout à

     l'autre avec une couvertte de l380º.

           Je regarde, je compars, je reflechis.  Je fais deux-trois

     demis tours toujours autour du four, je fumes quelques chameles ...

     je réréflechis, (il est 5 heures).  Et voila: d'après la XV

     cuisson: email rouge que j'emplois bon, couvertte de l380º partout

     bone, tirage bon. Voyons le derniere cuisson: tirage bon, petit feu

     - longe (très) duré du chafage pas ... la grille plus ou moin a sa

     place, enfournement ...

                              ATMOSSSFEREE !!!?

     A partir du moitie du foure (en arriere) du rouge done reductrice.

     En avant = Rouge partie le promener = oxidant.

                              CONclusion

     pendant la derniere cuisson petit feux (toujours très oxidant)

     etait trés longe, resultat: la temperature en avant du four a eu

     longement le temps (pendant le petit feux) de monte sufisamont (en

     plein oxidont !!!) pour commencer fondre les emaux (en avant) ...

     et le nostre Rouge = font le comps.

                              2 eme CONclusion

     faire petit feux assez court (oxidant) - grande feux (reductrice en

     plein) jusqua'à l000º - ll00º.  Et à partir de là, mon petit gros,

     tu poura y aller et te chaufer la petit deriere.

                         in CONveniant du cissteme:

     - la cheminé foure chofer dure (il est 6h) (musique allemande -

     Tesseff) Tu n'y comprendra surement rien, mai ça fait rien =

     = Les vrais HAUTTTESS inteligences son jamais comprisses tout de

     suite.

                                        Le compositeur de

                                        cette Lettre - un CON(super)

                                        dans Les Bornes.

 

97.  The successful firing of Armand Bedu's kiln has remained a clear

     image in the memory of at least one of the early 'newcomers' to La

     Borne.  Pierre Mestre, who lived and worked in the village for more

     than thirty years following his arrival in l949, recalled the

     incident with some relish when interviewed on 29 June l984.

 

     Ivanoff's written account of the incident was also contained in a

     letter to Denise Roux.

 

           Jeudi

           Dans Les Bornes

                         NON dess dieuxxx!!!

           Ma grande Danise si tu m'avais vu cett nuit tu aura été

     telement fierree et content que tu aurra pisser dans ta culotte

     rose de joi.  Je me suis fais une magnifique cuisson dans le four

     du Bedu (le four qui attender depuis dix ans pour être allumé).  Je

     te raconterais ça ma grande.  Je m'amene hier soir: alors: il

     croiez que ce pour ¼ d'heure - Ah, non je te demande pardon!  Je

     passe le nuit.  Je prends le four en main et je commence: = d'abord

     a parler, apres a gestiquler, apres a baffouiller je fini par

     posstianer et a siffler comme un animal d'un autre epoque et voila

     que c'est Moe qui command :  Bedu du bois!  Bedu arose le cheminé!

     Bedu je ne veux pas ta sale charbonette!  Du ecorssé non des Dieux!

     Madame Bedu ?!  Du café pour me reveiller!  Et que ça sotte!  Et ma

     grande je le fais marcher ce four et je le fais tomber les

     monsrtess.  Ah, si tu avais vu ça?!?

           Viens demain soir pour que je te raconte ça

                                        Vassia

98.  'Notes', op. cit., p.l28

 

99.  ibid., p.9l

 

l00. idem.

 

l0l. Interviews: Denise Roux, Paris and La Borne

 

l02. Grasset, Eugène: 'Formes et Décoration des Vases' in ' Art et

     Décoration ' octobre l909

 

l03. Kiln Records, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

l04. ibid.

 

l05. cf., 'Le dragon extrême-oriental, décoration de vases dans la

     céramique européenne vers l900' in Wichmann, Siegfried:

     'Japonisme', St. Nlle des Editions du Chêne, Paris, l982, p.336f.

 

l06. Kiln records for 4 ème cuisson, Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

l07. idem.

 

l08. idem.

 

l09. idem.

 

ll0. Faré, Michel: 'La Céramique Contemporaine', Compagnie des Arts

     Photomécaniques, Paris, l953, p.37

 

lll. Kiln records, 4 ème. cuisson.  Ivanoff archives, Paris

 

ll2. Correspondance: Ivanoff - Denise Roux, l948, n.d.

 

ll3. Correspondance: Ivanoff - Denise Roux, l949, n.d.

 

ll4. Correspondance: Ivanoff - Denise Roux, l948, n.d.

 

ll5. Correspondance: Ivanoff - Denise Roux, l950, n.d.

 

ll6. Cat. 'Potiers en Terre', l962, p.49

 

ll7. idem.

 

ll8. idem.

 

ll9. Throughout his life Ivanoff produced such plaques, decorating them

     with either relief composition or, more often, the technique

     described in the text.  Denise Roux's chronology of his work places

     the production of these in l959 and l966, but mention is made of

     them in two letters Ivanoff received from Armand Bedu on 2l and

     28 November, l950.  The latter techniques were also largely those

     that he used to decorate a series of large plates, which Denise

     Roux relates were thrown for him by one of the traditional potters,

     Lamotte, an employee in Marius Bernon's pottery.

 

l20. 'Notes', loc. cit.

l2l. Faré: op. cit., pp.37/38